LPA 10/2019 & CM Nos. 566/2019 & 649/2019

Rajendra Menon & Kameshwar Rao, JJ. [Decided on 28/02/2019]

National Herald case – Companies Act – Acquisition of shares principle of piercing corporate veil – Delhi High Court reiterates the principle.

Brief facts:

Though this case covered law on various aspects of the issue such as cancellation of lease, right to re-entry, transfer of property by transfer of shareholdings, we are concerned with the issue of ‘piercing the corporate veil’ and how and when the smoke screen of corporate identity could be pierced to identify the real beneficiaries in the camouflaged transaction. The following are relevant facts for the above issue.

Indian National Congress sometimes referred to as AICC had advanced a loan of Rs.90 crores to AJL. On 13th August 2010, an application was made for incorporation of a charitable non-profit company (a company under Section 25 of the Companies Act) named Young India and ultimately on 23rd November 2010 Young India was incorporated with Sh. Suman Dubey and Sh. Sam Pitroda as its founder Directors. This company had an authorized share capital of 5,000 shares of Rs.100/- each valued at Rs.5, 00,000/- and the paid up share capital was 1100 shares of Rs.100/- each valued at Rs.1, 10,000/- and the company at that point of time had two shareholders, (a) Shri Sam Pitroda – 550 shares valued at Rs.100/- each and (b) Shri Suman Dubey – 5,000 shares valued at Rs.100/- each.

On 13th December 2010, the first Managing Committee Meeting of Young India took place and Shri Rahul Gandhi was appointed as its Director, namely, a non-shareholder and Shri Motilal Vora and Shri Oscar Fernandes as ordinary members. Within five days thereafter, that is, on 18th December 2010, by a deed of assignment the loan of Rs.90 crores and odd outstanding in the books of Indian National Congress as recoverable from Associated Law Journals for the period 2002 to 2011 was transferred to Young India. Three days thereafter, on 21st December, 2010, a Board Meeting of AJL called for an EGM which was subsequently held on 24th December, 2010 and on the said date a loan of Rs.1 crore was received by Young India from another company M/s Dotex and thereafter on 28th December, 2010 i.e. within a week a formal deed of assignment was executed by AICC assigning the loan of Rs.90 crores in favour of Young India.

Immediately thereafter on 21st January, 2011, an EGM of Associated Law Journal was held approving fresh issue of 9.021 crores shares to Young India and on 22nd January, 2011 i.e. on the next day the second Managing Committee of Young India was held in which Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Mr. Motilal Vohra and Mr. Oscar Fernandes were appointed as Directors and the 550 shares of the existing shareholders of Young India – Suman Dubey and Sam Pitroda were transferred to Smt.Sonia Gandhi and Mr.Oscar Fernandes and on the same day fresh allotment of Young India shares were made in the following manner: (a) 1,900 shares having paid up value of Rs.1,90,000/- to Shri Rahul Gandhi, (b) 1,350 shares with a paid up amount of Rs.1,35,000/- in the name of Smt. Sonia Gandhi, (c) 600 shares with a paid up value of Rs.60,000 in the name of Sh. Motilal Vohra and (d) 50 shares with a paid up value of Rs.5,000 in the name of Sh.Oscar Fernandes and after issuance of PAN by the Income Tax Department a bank account was opened by Young India with Citibank on 14th February, 2011 and the cheque issued by M/s Dotex for Rs.1 crore was deposited in the Young India Bank account on the said day and on 26th February, 2011 Young India issued a cheque of Rs.50 lakhs to AICC as consideration for assignment of Rs.90 crore debt payable by ALJ to AICC. On the same day, i.e., 26th February, 2011, ALJ allotted 9, 02, 16,899 equity shares to Young India in pursuance to the AGM Meeting decision held on 21st January, 2011 and the ALJ Board Meeting on 26th February, 2011 and thereafter Young India applied for exemption under Section 12-Aon 29th March, 2011 and on 9th May, 2011 the Income Tax Authorities granted the exemption with effect from the F.Y. 2010-11.

Decision: Appeal dismissed.


We have heard the learned counsel for the parties at length and we have also gone through the written submissions filed by them.

Be that as it may, by the aforesaid transaction that had taken place, Young India acquired beneficial interest on AJL’s property which on the said date was valued at more than Rs.400 crores on payment of a sum of Rs.50 lakhs to AICC. This, according to the respondent, if viewed in the backdrop of the purpose of transfer lease and the modus operandi adopted is nothing but a devise to transfer the property held on lease from the Government by AJL, Young India which became 99% or rather 100% shareholder of AJL. With these facts, we now propose to examine the judgments relied upon by both the parties to evaluate the legal implication and the principles culled out from these judgments and examine their applicability in the present factual matrix to decide the issue of breach of conditions of the lease on this count.

On a consideration of the argument as canvassed by Dr.Singhvi, at the first instance, the same looks very attractive and the findings recorded may look to be unsustainable and perverse, however, it is an equally settled principle of law that in public interest and for assessing the actual nature of a transaction or the modus operandi employed in carrying out a particular transaction, the theory of lifting of the corporate veil is permissible and a Court can always apply this doctrine to see as to what is the actual nature of transaction that has taken place, its purpose and then determine the question before it after evaluating the transaction or the modus operandi employed in the backdrop of public interest or interest of revenue to the State etc. The theory and doctrine of lifting of corporate veil had been considered by the Supreme Court in the case of Gotan Lime Stone (Supra) and in the said case, judgments in the case of Vodafone (supra) and Skipper Construction (supra) etc. have been taken note of and in para 30, specific reference has been made to the Constitution Bench judgment in the case of Bacha F. Guzdar (supra).

If we consider the transaction in the present case in the backdrop of the aforesaid principles laid down by the Hon’ble Supreme Court, we have no hesitation in holding that the purpose for which the doctrine of lifting of the veil is applied is nothing but a principle followed to ensure that a corporate character or personality is not misused as a device to conduct something which is improper and not permissible in law, fraudulent in nature and goes against public interest and is employed to evade obligations imposed in law. If that is the purpose for which the doctrine of lifting of the veil is to be employed and if we see the transaction that has taken place in the present case with regard to how the transfer of shares between AJL and Young India took place, we find that within a period of about three months, that is, between 23rd November, 2010 to 26th February, 2011, Young India was constituted. It took over the right to recover a loan of more than 90 Crores from All India Congress Committee for a consideration of Rs.50 Lakhs, thereafter replaced the original shareholders of Young India by four new entities including Sh.Moti Lal Vohra, Chairman of AJL and Young India after acquiring 99% of shares in AJL, became the main shareholder with four of its shareholders acquiring the administrative right to administer property of more than 400 Crores. Even though Dr.Singhvi had argued that there is nothing wrong in such a transaction and it is legally permissible, but if we take note of the principles and the doctrine for which the theory of lifting of the corporate veil has received legal recognition, we have no hesitation in holding that the entire transaction of transferring the shares of AJL to Young India was nothing but, as held by the learned writ Court, a clandestine and surreptitious transfer of the lucrative interest in the premises to Young India. In fact, the contention of Dr. Singhvi has to be rejected and rightly so was rejected by the Single Judge even though without applying the principle of lifting of the corporate veil.

In case the theory of lifting of the corporate veil, as discussed hereinabove, is applied and the transaction viewed by analysing as to what was the purpose for such a transaction, the so called innocent or legal and permissible transaction as canvassed before us, in our considered view, is not so simple or straight forward as put before us, but it only indicates the dishonest and fraudulent design behind such a transaction.

Apart from the aforesaid judgments, there are various other judgments which have been brought to our notice wherein the said theory of lifting of the corporate veil has been approved and we have no hesitation in holding that the transfer in question, if analysed in the backdrop of the principles as discussed hereinabove, we see no error in the findings recorded by the learned writ Court to hold that the transfer in question comes within the prohibited category under clause XIII (3) of the lease agreement.

Accordingly, finding no ground made being out for making any indulgence into the matter, we dismiss the appeal.

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